Esty's Guide to Late Roman AE Coin Types, AD 364-450: Valens GLORIA ROMANORVM
A Complete List
    Valentinian I through Theodosius II and Valentinian III

A resource for collectors of Late Roman AE coins.
    Types, rarities, and commentary. Also, type sets by emperor.

References for the fascinating history of the period are listed here.  For the primary ancient source for Valentinian and Valens, see Ammianus Marcellinus: The Later Roman Empire (AD. 354-378) translated by Walter Hamilton, Penguin Books, 1986 (which is very inexpensive). Books 26-31 cover Valentinian I through the death of Valens at the Battle of Adrianople. This is 130 pages of an original ancient source. Highly recommended.
Several modern histories on the page of historical references are also well-written and enjoyable. For numismatic references, see below.

This is a fun area to collect because the history is interesting and the coins are among the least expensive of all ancient coins, while there are many rare types that can be found occasionally to keep you interested (for decades, in my case!).

Copyright (c) Warren W. Esty. All rights reserved. You are encouraged to print the tables for personal use as a collecting checklist, and for that you have my permission. However, no other reproduction is allowed without my explicit written permission (which I will likely give if you ask).
If you would like to discuss the coins of this time period, 
e-mail me at: e-mail

What's New? March 23, 2014. A facing bust Honorius/CONCORDIA AVGGG from Antioch (Type 47)
Feb. 14, 2014. The first image of the rare type 66
for Valentinian III on this site and on its its page.

Search (e.g. for legends) with "Control-F".

Contents: How to use these tables.
         FAQ about this page: What do all those abbreviations, bold terms, underlining, etc. mean?

  Emperors listed chronologically (or, alphabetically) linked to their types and their complete type sets
                (also, including links to separate lists of each emperor's types).
         A link to a timeline of events that determine who issued coins when (names and dates).
  Images of all reverse types (just below)
             Four TABLES of types and issuers (each preceded by images of its types).
   Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)    (Valentinian to the death of Valens, 364 - 375)
   Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius, 375 - 395)
   Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius, 395 - 423)
   Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)   (Theodosius II and Valentinian III, 423 - 450).
         Table contents outlined and explained.
             The use of size, type, and rarity in the tables.
         Mint abbreviations.
         Reference works.
         How to distinguish the 3 Valentinians and the 2 Theodosii.
         Why do some types get listed twice, with two distinct RIC numbers?
         How to reference types from this list.
         Caveats



Images of most reverse types (in chronological order):   Click on the images to go to the corresponding page.  N.B.  Images preserve relative type sizes.
Table 1 images (364 - 378):
type 1type 2type 3type 4type 5
type 6
type 7type 8type 8Atype 9type 10type 11type 12
            Go to the table (Table 1).

Table 2 images (378 - 395):   Go the the table (Table 2, first half).
1314151617 181920212223242526272829


Table 2 (second half) images Go to the table (Table 2, second half).
30 3132type 333435
3637 38394041




4243


Types after type 43 begin after the death of Theodosius in 395.
Table 3 images (395 - 423): Go to the table (Table 3).

444546   47

4849 50515253

54 5556575859 
 
Types 45-59 (several types not pictured)
Go to the table (Table 3).

Table 4 images (423 - 450):
60 6162C

65Type 66676871
73

74type 7576


Types 60-76 (several types not pictured)
Go to the table (Table 4).
Go to unpictured type 64type 66type 69, type 70type 72type 77, type 78, type 79, type 80, type 81.



Table 1:  Types initiated 364-378 (period from Valentinian I, 364, ending with the death of Valens in 378) (Table 1 images)

AE      reverse types     Table 1 ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
3 VOT / V / MVLT / X in wreath 1    364 S









3 RESTITVTOR REIP  emp stg w vict on  globe 2 364-367 C
C









1 RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE  emp stg 3 364-367 S 2
4







3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   Vict adv left 4 364-378 2 2
2
2







3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   emp. drags captive 5 364-388 C C C C C
S



3 SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE   Vict adv left 6 364-378 C C C C






3 REPARATIO FEL TEMP  (bust left) emp   chi rho 7 365-366









P-S
3 REPARATIO FEL TEMP  (bust right, no chi-rho) 8 365-366









P-S
3
SECVRITAS REIBVP emp. front with standard
8A
365-366










P-2
3 GLORIA NOVI SAECVLI   emp w labarum 9 367-375

S








2 GLORIA ROMANORVM  camp gate 10 367-375 2 2 2







3 FELICITAS ROMANORVM   Vict adv left  11 375-378
3 2 5






4 VICTORIA AVGGG   Victory adv left 12 375-395
4 4 C C
C 3

E-3
AE      reverse type          [end of Table 1] ID  date V Vn G V2 T
A H

other

Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.
Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
 This was  Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.

Rarity notes:  There are huge numbers of types 1-8 coming out of the Balkans now and the old RIC IX rarity ratings from 1933 are not up to date for any mint that sent coins to the Balkans, particularly Siscia, Thessalonica, and Sirmium, as well as, to a lessor extent, other nearby eastern mints. Therefore, I have changed some of the ratings. Those changed to more common are in this color (dark red). Those changed to rarer are in this color (dark green). Types 7 and 8, of Procopius, were "R2" or "R3" in RIC, but are now common. However, they are still "scarce" in nice condition, hence the "S" in the rarity column.  

Type notes:
4  has the type of SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE with the legend GLORIA ROMANORVM
8A, a relatively recent discovery, was not listed in RIC.
11  has the type of SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE but the legend FELICITAS ROMANORVM.
12  VICTORIA AVGGG,  is very similar to several other types in the tables. Type 12 is difficult to distinguish from Type 44, which is a continuation of the same type at Trier with GG instead of GGG for a short while after the death of Theodosius. Type 14 is similar but distinctly larger.  Type 27 is similar, but has 2 G's for Magnus Maximus. An example with GG for Theodosius is probably just an error. Type 55 is similar but cruder, usually with type too large for the flan.



Table 2:  Types initiated 378-395 (After the death of Valens and before the death of Theodosius. This table finishes the types of RIC IX.) (Table 2 images)

AE      reverse types       Table 2 ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
3 VRBS ROMA   Roma std l 13 378-383


C






3 VICTORIA AVGGG    Vict adv l (AE3, not AE4) 14 378-383

2
R 2






3 CONCORDIA AVGGG   Roma std hd left, globe left 15 378-383

C C S





3 CONCORDIA AVGGG   Con. std hd right, globe right 16 378-383

S S C
3



4 CONCORDIA AVGGG   Con. std hd right 17 378-383



4





2 REPARATIO REIPVB  emp raises kneeling female 18 378-388

C C C C




3 VIRTVS ROMANORVM   Roma std l 19 378-383

C 4 2






2 GLORIA ROMANORVM  emp on galley 20 378-388

C C C
3



2 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict insc chi-rho on shield 21 378-388









AF-C
4 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict insc chi-rho on shield 22 378-388









AF-S
2 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   empress standing 23 383-388









AF-R
4 VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX in wreath 24 378-383

S S R
R



4
VOT / X / MVLT / XXX in wreath
24A
378-383




4






4+ VOT / XV / MVLT / XX in wreath 25 378-383

C R R





4 VOT / X / MVLT / XX in wreath 26 378-388

C C C
C



4 VICTORIA AVGG   Vict adv l 27 383-388




2




4 VOT / V / MVLT / X in wreath 28 378-388

R R C 3 4



4 VOT / V in wreath 29 383-388

R R S
C



AE      reverse type (Table 2, second half, images) ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
4 VO / TIS / V  in wreath 30 383-388




2




2 VIRTVS EXERCITI  emp stg r, foot on captive 31 383-388


C C 4 C



2 VICTORIA AVGG   emp stg left Vict on globe 32 383-388




S




4 VICTORIA AVG(GG)  two Victories facing each other 33 383-388


S S
S



3 VIRTVS AVGGG  emp on galley left 34   385


S S
S



2 GLORIA ROMANORVM (obv w hand of God) 35 383-388 





C



4 SPES ROMANORVM  camp gate 36 387-388




C



FV-S
3 GLORIA REIPVBLICE  camp gate (obv bust left) 37   388


2
R
2




4 GLORIA REIPVBLICE  camp gate 38   388


S S
S



4 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict l drags captive 39 388-403


C C
C C


3 SPES REIPVBLICAE  emp l, hd r., foot on captive left 40 388-391 


4 4
4



2 GLORIA ROMANORVM  emp w. std and globe 41 393-395



C
C C


3 GLORIA ROMANORVM  emp on horseback 42 392-395



C
C C


4 SPES ROMANORVM   Vict adv l 43 393-394









E-2
AE         reverse type        [end of Table 2] ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other

Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.
Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
     Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
This was  Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.

Table 2 Type notes:
14  "VICTORIA AVGGG" is an AE3 of a type common as AE4 (type 12).
15  and 16  are very similar. On type type 16, Constantinopolis looks right and her foot rests on a tiny prow (left) and she holds a globe to the right. On type 15, Roma looks left and holds a globe to the left. There is a variant with no globe listed under type 16.
17  is just like the AE3 type 16, but smaller.
20  is "irregular for Arcadius" and the two examples in DO have the "hand of God" obverse expected on type 35.  
24  has an extremely rare variant:  AE4.  VOT / X / MVLT / XXX in wreath. RIC IX, Ant 57, "R5," which I have added in as type 24A.
27
  for Magnus Maximus with two G's, is very similar to type 12 which has 3 G's.  
29  "VOT / V" has at least one example with an engraver's error: VOT X
31  "VIRTVS EXERCITI": For Arcadius at Constantinople the obverse spells out the whole title "AVGVSTVS", but always as "AVGVSIVS" with "I" for "T". Reference works do not seem to acknowledge this. Is the substitution because the pronunciation was changing? Elsewhere, the usual "AVG" is found.
36  "SPES ROMANORVM, camp gate." This is the only type of Flavius Victor in AE.
37  and 38 are similar. Type 37 is AE3, "camp gate," has bust left and is "scarce" in RIC, but really is quite rare. It is an AE3 with the same reverse as type 38.
38  AE4, "camp gate," with bust right, has an AE3 version, type 37, with consular bust left.
39  AE4, "SALVS REPVBLICAE, Victory left drags captive" was issued over many years with minor variations treated as one type here. After AD 395 it has a chi-rho in field left. A cruder version with the same types was minted by Johannes for himself and Theodosius II (type 60).

Tables 2 and 2A complete the list of types in RIC IX, which ends at AD 395 with the death of Theodosius, part way through the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius. DO begins with all issues of Arcadius (beginning in 383) and Honorius (beginning in 393), but has no coins of Theodosius I. The types of Arcadius and Honorius in Table 2 can be found in both RIC IX and DORIC X resumes in 395 where RIC IX leaves off.

Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.



Table 3:  Types initiated AD 395-423, after the death of Theodosius I and before Valentinian III.
    Only Arcadius, Honorius, and Theodosius II.  (These types are in RIC X and DO.)
Size note: AE3's and AE4's are of reduced sizes, so an "AE3" in this table is smaller than an AE3 from Tables 1 or 2. (Table 3 images)

AE      reverse types       Table 3 ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
4 VICTORIA AVGG   Vict adv left 44    395





2 2


3 VIRTVS EXERCITI   Vict crowns emp 45 395-401





C C


4 CONCORDIA AVG(GG)  cross 46 395-408





C C C

3 CONCORDIA AVGG (facing bust) 47 401-403





S S S

3 GLORIA ROMANORVM  three emps, middle smaller 48 403-408





C C C

3 VRBS ROMA FELIX   Roma stg, hd. r 49 404-408





R R 2

3 VICTORIA ROMANORVM   Vict adv l  star in field 50 409-410









PA-3
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   two emps standing 51 408-423






C C

3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   two emps w globe 52 408-423






C S

3 GLORIA ROMANORVM emp w standard, shield 53 411-415






2


3 GLORIA ROMANORVM   emp w 2 captives 54 409-410






R


3-4 VICTORIA AVGG(G)   Vict. adv. l 55 410-435






S 4 S J-4
3 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict std, insc shield 56 400-401









Ex-S, Pu-4
3 GLORIA ROMANORVM  empress std facing 57 402-404









Ex-S
2 VICTORIA AVGGG   emp raises female 58 410-411









Mx-4
3 VICTORIA AVGGG   Vict adv l 59 410-411









Mx-3
AE      reverse type     [end of Table 3] ID   date





A H T2 V3 other
 
   Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.
Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
     Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
This was Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.

Table 3 rarity notes: In this and the following time period even the "common" coins may be very difficult to find in a pleasing condition. Most types are crowded or very crowded. Most of the coins circulated a long time and are very worn. In terms of the number of "full VF" coins offered, a "rare" coin in this period is as hard to find as an "extremely rare" coin of an earlier century.

Identification note: Coins of Theodosius II often have a star behind the head. If a coin of "THEODOSIVS" has a star behind the head, it is Theodosius II, not Theodosius I.

Table 3 type notes:
44  "VICTORIA AVGG" is a continuation of type 12 with GG for GGG. See also type 55, which is cruder. It can be confused with type 27. Type 14 is a larger AE3 version.
45  Table 3A,1 is the same type, but (accidentally?) for Eudoxia.
49  "VRBS ROMA FELIX" for Theodisius II is erroneously in RIC IX where it is attributed to Theodosius I. It also comes in a very reduced size with much of the type off the flan (Here is an example).
52  "two emperors with globe" was called "emperor receiving globe from Jupiter" in LRBC.
56, and 57: Eudoxia's obverses have "hand of God" crowning her.
56   "SALVS REIPVBLICAE" has Victory inscribing shield variously with chi-rho, chi-iota, or cross.
58 and 59  are the only AE for Maximus, AD 410-411, RIC p.351.



Table 4:  Types initiated AD 423-450 (Theodosius II and Valentinian III)
Note: AE3's and AE4's are of much reduced sizes, so an "AE3" in this table is smaller than an AE3 from Tables 1 or 2. (Table 4 images)

AE      reverse types      [Table 4] ID   date V Vn G V2 T MM A H T2 V3 other
3 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   Vict drags captive 60 423-425







R
J-R
3 GLOR ORVIS TERRAR 61 423-425







3

4 CONCORDIA AVG   empress std facing 62 423-425









Pu-4
Pc-4
Ec-4
4 CONCORDIA AVGV  emp stg w cross on gl 63 423-425







3

4 VRTVS ROMANORVM   emp w st, shield 64   420's







4 4
4 SALVS REIPVBLICAE   thick cross 65 423-425








4 Pc-3
4 SALVS REIPVBLICE   Vict adv l 66 425-430








S Pc-3
4 CONCORDIA AVG Vict facing w two wreaths 67 425-435







R 3
4 cross in wreath (or cross-rho) 68 425-455







C R
3/4 VICTORIA AVGG   Vict left, strd/trophy, captive 69 430-437








2
4 VICTORIA AVGG    Victory, wreath, captive 70 430-437








2
4 VOT PVB  camp gate 71 430-437








R
4 VOT / XX in wreath 72 434-435








R
AE     reverse type ID   date







T2 V3 other
4 VICTORIA AVGG,  2 Victs holding one wreath 73 430-437








R
4 VT / XXX / V in wreath 74   435







R


2 CONCORDIA AGV   2 emps with long cross 75   437







3 4
3 monogram of Theodosius II in wreath 76 445-450







S

3/4 VOT / XV in wreath 77  c. 440








2
3/4 VICTO AVG  emp r, captive, strd (variously spelled) 78 440-455








2
4 VICTO(RIA) AVG   emp Virtus? l, globe and spear 79 440-450








2
4 VICTORIA AVG  Vict. left, wreath, palm 80 440-455








R
4 [VICTORIA] AVGVST  camp gate 81 440-455








4
4 CASTRA(N)   camp gate 82 440-455








2
4 ROMA   gateway, star above 83 440-455








4
AE       reverse type     [end of Table 4] ID   date







T2 V3 other

Go to a supplement listing very rare but attested types that are possibly mint errors or recording errors.
Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
     Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
This was Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)   (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.

Rarity notes: Typical coins from this period are in even worse shape than those from the previous period. Most coins are unevenly struck and very crowded. Most coins are very worn. Legends are misspelled and usually mostly missing. A "full flan and VF" example would be almost unimaginable. "F with half the legend" would be excellent.

Table 4 type notes:
60  "SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory drags captive": The style is very crude compared to the otherwise similar type 39.
64  VIRTVS ROMANORVM may be spelled "VRTVS" [sic]. LRBC 175-177.
69  RIC X lists 2151 as a "[SALVS REI]PVBLICA" legend with this design. p.380. See the supplementary table.
72  "VOT PVB, camp gate" is  the most commonly offered type for Valentinian III in AE. It is like type 82, but with a different legend.
74  "VT / XXX /V in wreath" is very similar to "VT / XXX in wreath" which is "R4" (and type 4A2 in the supplement) but of uncertain existence in RIC X. The type without the terminal "V" may exist, and this may be an example, but, this piece evokes the same concerns that there may actually be a weak "V" at the end. See type 74 for further discussion of this piece.
76  "monogram of Theodosius II" has five minor monogram varieties
82  "CASTRA(N), camp gate" is like VOT PVB, type 71, but with a different legend

RIC X pages for each emperor



ACCG

Contents of Tables
    The rows list types.
    The columns list:  AE size, description, ID number, dates, and emperors.
    Entries give each a rarity rating.
        Underlined and colored entries link to images.
        The one bold rarity rating links to the best example.
    The "reverse type" and "ID" number both link to more information.
Here are links to further explanations of the entries in the main tables:
    size, type, ID, and rarity, and abbreviations of emperor's names.
    Reference works and their abbreviations are listed at the end.

More information is linked to the "reverse type" descriptions (and "ID" number). The information includes RIC numbers and rarities by mint, and more scans. Here is the format of most type pages and mint abbreviations. The purpose and scope of this work is discussed here.

Image sizes are generally proportional to coin sizes, except that AE1's and 2's are enlarged slightly less than AE3's and 4's (20 mm would be only 88% as large). Scans are about 7-10k for the AE4's and 20k for the AE2's.

To search this page, use the "find" command (control-f), but note that legends are spelled with "V", not "U".
Bold print in the "reverse type" column marks particularly common types or the distinguishing elements of types with similar legends.

Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.



Emperors and Imperial Abbreviations (column labels)
    including links to their type-sets
    (in chronological order. Go to the same list in alphabetical order.)
    [Go to a timeline of events that determine who issued coins when.]
Abbreviation (Indented abbreviations are of lesser issuers listed in the rightmost table column.)
        Issuer. Prominent issuers are in bold type. Issuers are listed here in chronological order. (The list in alphabetical order.)
V     Valentinian I  364-375  [see Table 1 (Table 1 images)] [Type set]
Vn   Valens  364-378    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images)] [Type set]
  P    Procopius  365-366   [type 7 and type 8 and Type 8A] (in Table 1)  [Type set]
G     Gratian  367-383    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
V2   Valentinian II  375-392   [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
T      Theodosius  379-395    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
  AF Aelia Flaccilla  wife of Theodosius and mother of Arcadius and Honorius   [type 21, type 22, and type 23] (in Table 2)
MM Magnus Maximus  383-388    [see Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
  FV Flavius Victor  387-388   [type 36] (in Table 2)
  E    Eugenius  392-394   [type 12 and type 43] (in Table 1 and Table 2)
A     Arcadius  383-408    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images), Table 2 (Table 2 images), and Table 3 (Table 3 images)] [Type set]
  Ex  Eudoxia   wife of Arcadius   [type 56 and type 57] (in Table 3)
        (Another Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II and wife of Valentinian III, did not have AE coins).
H     Honorius  393-423   [Type set]
           Table 1 (Table 1 images),  Table 2 (Table 2 images),  Table 3 (Table 3 images)]   [Type set]
  Pc  Galla Placidia   423-425  daughter of Theodosius, mother of V3  [type 62, type 65, and type 66] (in Table 4)
  C3 Constantine III  407-411   [type 3A,4 - doubtful]
  PA  Priscus Attalus   409-415   [type 50] (in Table 3)
  Mx Maximus  410-411   [type 58 and type 59]  (in Table 3)
  J     Johannes   423-425   [type 55 and type 60]  (in Table 2 and Table 3)
T2    Theodosius II  402-450    [see Table 3 (Table 3 images) and Table 4 (Table 4 images)] [Type set]
  Ec  Eudocia   wife of Theodisius II   [type 62] (in Table 4)
  Pu  Pulcheria   daughter of Arcadius, regent for Theodosius II   [type 62 (in Table 4) and type 56 (doubtful, in Table 3)]
V3   Valentinian III  425-455   [see Table 4 (Table 4 images)] [Type set]
           A link to a timeline of more-precise dates of events.
           How to distinguish the two Theodosii and three Valentinians.




Size, types, ID, and rarity

The size is given as AE1, AE2, AE3, or AE4, as usual. Note that in the later periods the AE3's and AE4's are smaller than in the earlier periods. In fact, in the last period an "AE3" has the size that would have been "AE4" earlier and are called AE3 just because they are not the smallest pieces of the age, and "AE4" is reserved for the smallest pieces. Types commonly called "medallions" are not listed (nor are "VOTA PVBLICA" types).

Type abbreviations:  r = right; l = left; w = with (= holding); emp = emperor; Vict = Victory; lab = labarum with chi-rho; std = seated; stg = standing; adv = advancing (Victory, usually holding wreath and palm); insc = inscribing (onto shield); gl = globe.

Type notes: The emperor is often holding a standard or labarum which is not mentioned in the abbreviated description. Sometimes the standard has little or nothing on the banner and sometimes a chi-rho or X. Figures are often holding a "Victory on globe" which is not mentioned in the abbreviated description. The precise types may be seen in the illustrations. Types commonly called "medallions" are not listed, nor are "VOTA PVBLICA" types.

More information is linked to the "reverse type" descriptions (and "ID" number). The information includes RIC numbers and rarities by mint, and more images. Here is the format of most type pages.

The ID number is not from any text. I created it, simply attempting to be chronological or follow the order of RIC if the chronology is uncertain.

The rarity is given as C = common, S = scarce, R = rare, or 2, 3, 4, or 5 in increasing degrees of rarity.
The numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5 are taken from RIC if the type is of that degree of rarity in RIC from a single mint issue. For details of RIC's rarity ratings, click on the "reverse type" or "ID" number.  If the rarity rating is in bold, an example is illustrated on the page of images of that type.
    However, the rarity in the main tables on this page are somewhat modified to be of greater use to collectors. If a type was issued by several mints, a single, consolidated, degree of rarity is given which treats, for example, several R2's as merely R. However, in many cases I have overridden the RIC rarity with my own impression. In particular, the recent flood of coins from the Balkans has vaulted types like type 7 of Procopius from R3 to merely S. On the other hand, there are coins listed as "S" from several mints, or even "C" but from only one mint and officina, that I have listed as "R". This is likely to be in more in line with availability to collectors.

Rarity for Collectors. If you want to collect beautiful AE coins, this is not the time period for you. In this time period, especially in the latter half, even "common" coins may be very difficult to find in pleasing condition. Some earlier types, for example 5 and 6 (GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor drags captive, and SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory left, of Valentinian and Valens), are common with full flan and high grade. However, in the period after Theodosius I almost all AE coins are poorly struck and well worn. A well-struck, full flan VF would be rare indeed (a "condition rarity"), even when excavation reports record many (mostly terrible) examples. To see RIC rarity, mint by mint, click on the reverse type description or ID number. In the above tables I have tried to strike a balance between RIC rarity and condition rarity  -- attempting to reflect what I might call "good fine condition rarity" for all those types that do not come in nice EF.

Note:  In the tables I changed some rarity ratings to better indicate the current availability of the types. The rarity ratings were from RIC, and the great majority still are (they are in black in the main tables). But huge numbers of coins from the early part of this time period have been coming out of the Balkans, and the original rarity ratings in RIC are from 1933(!), so some changes are in order. Any rating in this color (dark red) is not the rating you would deduce from RIC, but one or more steps commoner. For example, type 1 used to be called "rare", but it is only "scarce" (if that) now. So, I have changed the label from "R" to "S" (note the dark red color). On the other hand, some types are rarer than you would deduce from RIC. Those that I have changed to rarer ratings are in this color (dark green). These ratings are based on my personal opinion. If I have not followed a type closely for a long time, I have not changed its rating because I cannot be confident I know that it should be changed.
    Bold rarity ratings denote that this site has an example illustrated.

Mint abbreviations:  Tr = Trier = Treveri, Lug = Lyons = Lugdunum, Ar = Arles = Arelate, Rom = Rome, Aq = Aquileia, Sis = Siscia, Th = Thessalonica, Her = Heraclea, Con = Constantinople, Nic = Nicomedia, Cyz = Cyzicus, Ant = Antioch, Ale = Alexandria, xx = uncertain.

Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
     Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.



FAQ about this page: What do all those abbreviations, bold terms, underlining, etc. mean?

Questions about this main page:

What is the purpose of this page?
    This page is simply a type and emperor list that indicates rarity for collectors and illustrates the types.
How can I find my coin?
   You can search the images for the type. If you know the emperor, you can search for his types by scanning down his column, or by going the list of names and corresponding type-sets (chronological, alphabetical). If you can read the legend, you can search for the legend (use "ctrl-F" from the top of the tables).
Why are some images missing?
    I just don't have images of those types. Hopefully they will appear in future revisions of this page.
What does "RIC" mean?
    "RIC" is the abbreviation for the standard reference "Roman Imperial Coinage."  References are listed below.
How are the tables organized?
    They list types chronogically, by date of introduction of the type. There are four tables. The first two cover RIC IX, and the last two cover RIC X. The first two are divided by the death of Valens. The second two are divided by the death of Arcadius. There are type-set lists for each emperor.
In the main table, what do "C", "S", "R" and "2" mean?
    "C" means RIC rarity "C" for "common". "S" is for "scarce", "R" for "rare", and "2" through "5" means rarities "R2" through "R5". For more details about rarity, click here.
Why are some reverse descriptions and AE sizes in bold?
    Bold types are the more common types. Bold words in type descriptions emphasize distinguishing features. Bold AE size numbers indicate the size distinguishes the type from other types with similar legends.
Why are some column labels in bold?
    Emperors represented in the table are in bold. Emperors not represented are not.
Why is so much of each table empty?
    The horizontal of the table serves as an approximate time line -- the same for each table. Empty columns show the type was not issued by those emperors.
Does the main page list every type?
    Not quite. It is complete for all known types that are definitely offical regular currency types. However, there is a supplementary page of attested types that are very rare and possibly mint errors or recording errors. Medallions are not included.
What if a type was issued in two time periods?
    This table lists each type only once -- by date of initial issue. Long-lasting types that continued to be issued into the time period of the next table (such as type 12 in Table 1) are listed only in the earlier table. The dates indicate the time span during which it was issued, and all emperors using the type will be noted in the earlier table.

Questions about the linked type pages:

What is the purpose of the type pages?
    The type pages give more images and more evidence of the rarities of the types. Occasionally some commentary is included.
What is the format of the type pages?
    Here is a page outlining the format of the type pages.
Some image links are in bold. What does that mean?
    On the type page, the image listed in bold is the one on that page (usually the best example). For other images, click on their links.
What is the significance of the one image at the top if the page?
    It is chosen to be the best illustration of the reverse type.
The mint names are abbreviated. What are their full names?
    See the format page. By the way "xx" means the mintmark is illegible and the mint uncertain.
Why do you list the numbers of photos in various references, but not reproduce the photos?
    The numbers (and associated mints) tell you something of the rarity of the type. The photos are under copyright. This list is not intended to obviate the need for the basic references.
What is "Cayon"?
    See the list of references next for all questions about cited references.
I find RIC X hard to use. How can I find an emperor's types in RIC X?
    I had to make a short list correlating emperors and pages.

Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.



How to use these tables:
    1)  Identify the type by size, legend, and design in the two columns on the left,
            or, use the images to identify the type by ID number,
            or, search the list of issuers (next below) for types issued by each.
    2)  Find the issuers and associated rarities in the columns on the right.
    3)  Find the dates of issue and the Esty ID number in the middle columns.
    4)  For more information, click on the type (legend and design) or on the ID number.

Go to FAQ about this page: What do all those abbreviations, bold terms, underlining, etc. mean?
        Some types and images open in new windows. If you click on a link on this page and nothing seems to happen, look in a window already open underneath (use the task bar).



Caveats.  Most of the types listed here are well-attested, but some are not. It is not always possible to know if some extremely rare type was intentional and therefore deserving of a place in a list of official types, or merely an anomoly -- perhaps even an ancient counterfeit.
    For example, type 17 has the design of type 16, but on a distinctly smaller flan. The fine execution of the one pictured example I have seen suggests it is official and intentionally smaller, but its great rarity suggests it is not both official and intentional. This one I chose to include in the main list. Other attested types have been relegated to a table of supplemental types that are listed in reference works, but which are possibly mint errors or recording errors.
    In the final time period the workmanship was so crude that the intended spelling of some legends is uncertain. Then minor spelling variants may all be grouped under one type. For example, the legend of type 64 is usually found, as listed in table 4, with an apparent misspelling, but this is not to say it is never spelled otherwise.

Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
     Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.



References
    For references to the history of the period, click here.
    The main scholarly numismatic references for the period are:

RIC       Roman Imperial Coinage, volumes IX, by Pierce, which covers 364-395, and
             volume X, by Kent, which covers 395-498
LRBC    Late Roman Bronze Coinage, part II, by Carson and Kent,
            which covers the whole time period, and
DO     Catalog of the Late Roman Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection, by Grierson and Mays,
            which covers from Arcadius and Honorius to 498
Hahn    Moneta Imperii Romani Byzantini, Die Ostpragung des Romischen Reiches im 5. Jahrhundret (408-491),
             by Wolfgang Hahn.

    RIC IX has extensive photographic coverage of the types, but with poor to mediocre photos. It has extensive discussion of the types and mints. RIC X has virtually complete photographic coverage (by mint, emperor, and type) with excellent photos. RIC X also has very extensive commentary. LRBC pictures one reverse of each type, but never the obverses. It is just a list by mint and time period, with no discussion.  DO (Late Roman Coins) has 37 excellent page plates with hundreds of coins photographed, and very extensive discussion of the types and reigns. Hahn lists and dates all coin types of Theodosius II, Honorius, Pulcheria, and Eudocia from each eastern mint (but not from western mints) with excellent photographs of each, sometimes picturing several examples and sometimes including enlargements. Its 46 pages of discussion are in German.

For additional scholarly references on coins of the period, and comments on what they say, see my additional references page.

Notes to RIC X.  Pages for AE types
   Eastern
Arcadius:  pages 68-72, 246-252 (includes Eastern Honorius, Theodosius II, and Eudoxia, legends p. 239)
Theodosius II:  pages 90-94, 271-277 (includes Eastern Honorius, Valentinian III, Pulcheria, Eudocia, and Placidia, legends on p. 253)
   Western
Honorius:  pages 127-128, 136-137, 322-340  (includes Western Arcadius, Theodosius II, Constantius III, and Placidia, legends on p. 317)
   Attalus:  pages 140-141, 345,     Constantine III:  pages 146, 350,     Maximus:  pages 150-151, 351
   Theodosius II  has no AD 423 sole-reign AE from the west (p. 355-358)
Johannes:  pages 158, 360-361 (includes Western Theodosius II)
Valentinian III:  pages 172-175, 375-381 (includes Western Placidia and one R4 Theodosius II, legends on p. 363)

    Three other books have some photographic coverage (but not discussion) of this material:

Cayon    For photographic coverage of the coins of the period of RIC IX, short of RIC, the best source I know of is a price guide in Spanish by Juan Cayon, Compendio de las Monedas del Imperior Romano, volume IV (Constans - 498). (By the Way, Volume III has excellent photos for the Tetrachy through Constantine II.) The given prices should be ignored, but common types may be illustrated with half a dozen examples, and all but the rarest types are illustrated. The author seems to have listed virtually every AE type in RIC IX, so, even when it has no photo, the type is usually listed.

Hunter    Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, volume V, by Anne Robertson, has 19 page plates of coins (mostly not AE) from Valentinian I to 498 (and 77 more plates from the reform of Diocletian to Valentinian, for which it is excellent for AE). It is basically a list and photos of coins in a collection, with almost no discussion, not at all like RIC or DO. Most of the common AE types are pictured, but the collection has few AE rarities. Hunter has no AE of Theodosius II or Valentinian III.

Ratto    Monnaies Byzantine, auction sale of 9 Dec. 1930 by Rodolfo Ratto (reprinted by Schulman, 1959) has mediocre photos of coins of (in this time period, only) Arcadius, Eudoxia, and Theodosius II.

Articles

J. W. E. Pearce, "AES coinage of Valentinian I: The evidence from hoards," NC 1948, 66-77. Gives hoard numbers for types 2, 4, 5 and 6, as well as the numbers he gathered for RIC IX.

John Kent, "The Coinage of Arcadius (395-406)," NC 1991, pp. 35-57 and plates 13-18.  An extensive study of the AE coinage in preparation for writing RIC X, fully illustrated.

J. P. C. (John) Kent, "The fifth century bronze coinage of Honorius in Italy and Gaul," RIN 90 (1988) pp. 281-293 (including two page plates). A study of the AE of Honorius in preparation for writing RIC X, with some corrections of RIC IX.



Emperors and imperial abbreviations (in alphabetical order of abbreviation):
        (The list in chronological order.)
    including links to their type-sets
Abbreviation  (Indented abbreviations are of lesser issuers listed in the rightmost table column.)
        Issuer  (Prominent issuers are in bold type.)
A     Arcadius  383-408    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images), Table 2 (Table 2 images), and Table 3 (Table 3 images)] [Type set]
  AF Aelia Flaccilla  wife of Theodosius and mother of Arcadius and Honorius   [type 21, type 22, and type 23] (in Table 2)
  C3 Constantine III  407-411   [Table 3A,4 - doubtful]
  E    Eugenius  392-394   [type 12 and type 43]  (in Table 1 and Table 2)
  Ec  Eudocia   wife of Theodisius II   [type 62  (in Table 4)
  Ex  Eudoxia   wife of Arcadius   [type 56 and type 57]  (in Table 3)
        (Another Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II and wife of Valentinian III, did not have AE coins).
  FV Flavius Victor  387-388   [type 36]  (in Table 2)

G     Gratian  367-383    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)]   [Type set]
H     Honorius  393-423   [Type set]
           Table 1 (Table 1 images),  Table 2 (Table 2 images),  Table 3 (Table 3 images)]   [Type set]
  J     Johannes   423-425   [type 55 and type 60]  (in Table 2 and Table 3)
MM Magnus Maximus  383-388    [see Table 2 (Table 2 images)]  [Type set]
  Mx Maximus  410-411   [type 58 and type 59]   (in Table 3)

  P    Procopius  365-366   [type 7 and type 8 and Type 8A]  (in Table 1)  [Type set]
  PA Priscus Attalus   409-415   [type 50]  (in Table 3)
  Pc  Galla Placidia   421-423  daughter of Theodosius, mother of V3  [type 62, type 65, and type 66]  (in Table 4)
  Pu  Pulcheria   daughter of Arcadius, regent for Theodosius II   [type 62 (in Table 4)  and type 56 (doubtful, in Table 3)]

T      Theodosius  379-395    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)]  [Type set]
T2    Theodosius II  402-450    [see Table 3 (Table 3 images) and Table 4 (Table 4 images)]  [Type set]

    How to distinguish the two Theodosii and three Valentinians.

Vn   Valens  364-378    [see Table 1 (Table 1 images)]   [Type set]
V     Valentinian I  364-375  [see Table 1 (Table 1 images)]   [Type set]
V2   Valentinian II  375-392   [see Table 1 (Table 1 images) and Table 2 (Table 2 images)] [Type set]
V3   Valentinian III  425-455   [see Table 4 (Table 4 images)]  [Type set]

Go to:  Emperor list (chronological), (alphabetical).
     Table 1 (364-378) images, Table 1 (types 1-12)   (Valentinian to the death of Valens)
     Table 2 (378-395) images, Table 2 (types 13-43)   (ending with the death of Theodosius)
     Table 3 (395-423) images, Table 3 (types 44-59)   (ending with the death of Honorius)
     Table 4 (423-450) images, Table 4 (types 60-81)     (Theodosius II and Valentinian III).
Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.


Distinguishing emperors:  Valentinian I has a full, heavy face. Valentinian II is depected as younger and thinner. Valentinian III's coins are distinguished from those of Valentinian II primarily by type and occasionally by their remarkably crude engraving. Some AE pieces of Valentinian III, but not many, are distinguished by "PL" (for "Placidus") preceeding VALENTINIANVS in the obverse legend
    Similarly, Theodosius II is distinguished from Theodosius I primarly by type, and occasionally by the cruder engraving. Some of the expected indicators do not work. Coins of Theodosius I can be poorly struck and worn, and even smaller than coins of Theodosius II. Furthermore, Theodosius I can look quite young, even though he was a mature adult and Theodosius II was a child emperor. But, for example, type 55 of Theodosius II is much cruder than the similar type 12 for Theodosius I. The one indicator, not always present, that certainly indicates Theodosius II is a star behind the head or neck (although, if the legend is gone it could be Honorius).



Referencing this list: To refer to types using this list, cite the type number and append the imperial abbreviation. For example, type 5 of Theodosius would be "Esty type 5 for Theodosius" or "Esty 5T" or "Esty T-5."

You may e-mail me at:   to reach Esty

Comments and corrections, or simply ancient-coin chat, are very welcome. You can help me by letting me know about broken links, typos, errors, etc.

Go to the Table of Contents, near the top of the page.